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پایان نا مه کارشناسی ارشد رشته آموزش زبان انگلیسی درباره پیشرفت درک مطلب شنیداری
 
استاد راهنما
سرکار خانم دکتر کارکیا
 
استاد مشاور
سرکار خانم دکتر قهرمانی قاجار
 
دانشجو
لیلا قادرپناهی
 
 
 
IN THE NAME OF GOD
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
AL-ZAHRA UNIVERSITY
 
Faculty of Theology and Humanities
A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of the Degree of Master of Arts in Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL)
 
Thesis Title
Using Aural Authentic Materials to Develop Listening Comprehension in the EFL Classroom
 
 
Thesis Advisor
 
Thesis Reader
 
BY
Leila Ghaderpanahi
 
September, 2005
 
 
This thesis is approved by:
 
Dr.P.Karkia (Advisor)
 
________________________________________
 
 
 
Dr.S.Ghahremani Ghajar (Reader)
 
________________________________________
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Zahra University
Tehran-Iran
September, 2005
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
DEDICATION
 
 
 
To my beloved parents
 
for all their love, support and
 
insightful guidance prior and during
 
the completion of this study,
 
for teaching me the value of listening
 
Table of Contents
 
 
Acknowledgement X
 
Abstract XI
 
List of Tables XII
 
 
Chapter 1: Introduction 1
 
 
Chapter 2: Review of Literature 15
 
2.2.1 Definition of Listening 15
2.2.2 Importance of Listening 17
2.2.2.1 Listening and Academic Success 18
2.2.2.2 Discovery Listening 18
2.2.3 Listening as an Academic Process 20
2.2.3.1 Knowledge Required for Listening 20
Process
Comprehension
2.2.5.1 Authentic and Listening 23
Comprehension
2.2.6 Tasks for Listening Comprehension 25
2.2.6.1 Performing to Indicate Understanding 27
2.2.6.2 Teaching rather than Testing 28
2.2.7 Inner Speech and Language Learning 29
2.2.7.1 Listening and Speaking 29
2.2.8 Maturation and Language Learning 30
2.2.8.1 Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal 31
Development
Learning Language
2.2.9.1 Schema Theory 32
2.2.9.2 Background Knowledge/Prior 33
Knowledge
2.2.10 Cultural Background 35
2.3 Listening and English-as-a-Foreign-Language Learning 36
2.3.1 The Emergency of Communicative Language 36
Teaching
and Features
2.4 The Use of Aural Authentic Materials 40
2.4.1 Definitions of Authentic Materials 40
2.4.2 Authentic Materials and Language Performance 41
2.4.3 Nature of Authentic Texts 43
2.4.3.1 Characteristics of Authentic Speech 43
2.4.3.2 Authentic Speech and Cultural Aspect 44
 
 
Chapter 3: Methodology 46
 
 
3.2.1 Participants 48
3.2.2 Classroom Observation 49
3.3 Demographic Data of the Students 50
3.4 Classroom Environment 52
3.4.1 Setting 52
3.5 Classroom Practices 52
3.5.1 Listening Materials Implemented in Class 52
3.5.2 Class Procedure 53
3.6 Teacher’s Pedagogy 54
3.7 Interviews 55
3.7.1 Interviews with Students 56
3.7.1.1 First Interview 56
3.7.1.2 Second Interview 56
3.8 Self-Evaluation Questionnaire 57
3.9 Language Learning Strategy Questionnaire 58
3.10 Data Collection 59
3.11 Analysis of Data 60
3.12 Validity and Reliability 63
Chapter 4: Results 64
 
4.3.1 Results for Fundamental Research Question: 66
Influences of Aural Authentic Materials
4.3.1.1 Results from the Interviews with Students 67
4.3.1.2 Results from the Class Observation 69
4.3.1.3 Results from the Self-Evaluation 71
Questionnaire
4.3.2 Summary of Findings Related to the Influences 72
of Aural Authentic Materials
4.3.3 Results for Secondary Research Question#1: 73
Learning Strategy Use
4.3.3.1 Results from the Interview with 73
students
Questionnaire
4.3.4 Summary of Findings Related to the Learning 77
Strategy Use
 
4.3.5 Results for Secondary Research Question#2: 79
Attitudes towards Language Learning
4.3.5.1 Results from the Interviews with 79
Students
Attitudes towards Language Learning
4.4 Overall Findings of the Study 80
4.4.1 Students with no Progress in Listening Ability 81
4.4.2 Students with Progress in Listening Ability 82
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chapter 5: Conclusion 84
 
5.3.1 Authenticity of the Listening Materials 86
5.3.2 Influences of Aural Authentic Materials on 89
Listening Comprehension
5.4 Conclusions 96
5.5 Recommendations 102
5.5.1 Recommendations for Further Research 102
5.5.2 Implications for Teaching 103
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Bibliography 105
 
Appendices 123
 
Appendix A 124
 
Appendix B 125
 
Appendix C 129
 
Appendix D 131
 
Appendix E 137
 
Appendix F 145
 
Appendix G 147
 
Appendix H 148
 
Appendix I 149
 
Appendix J 150
Appendix K 151
 
Appendix L 157
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Acknowledgements
 
 
It is the highest time I seized the opportunity to offer my most genuine and profound words of gratitude to many people to whom I owe the accomplishment of this research. Among many people who have bestowed, most kindly, their invaluable help upon me I should specifically thank my honorable thesis advisor, Dr.Karkia, who patiently went through every line of this thesis and provided me with many insightful comments and invaluable suggestions. I would also like to extend my sincere appreciation and gratitude to Dr. Ghahremani Ghajar, my thesis reader, for her most professional guidelines, meticulous reading of this manuscript, making insightful suggestions and corrections; for her expertise and time. I am also very much grateful to Dr. Rahimi for her critical evaluation, and judgment of this thesis.
Also my thanks and best wishes go to all students who participated in the present study, without whose cooperation this research would not have been conducted.
Last, by no means least, a truly cordial sense of thankfulness to my parents General Ali Ghaderpanahi and Firooze Nobariyan for their support and everlasting encouragement throughout my educational years.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ABSTRACT
The fundamental purpose of this study was to examine the influences of aural authentic materials on listening ability of thirty female undergraduate psychology majors studying English as a foreign language. The secondary purposes of the study were to identify the learning strategies used by EFL students experiencing authentic listening texts and to determine the influences of authentic materials on EFL students’ attitudes towards learning English.
A quantitative and qualitative analysis was offered in this study. It basically focused on using authentic materials and real-life situations as part of the communicative approach. Sources for designing and implementing effective listening strategy instruction and the transcript of one-hour videotaped session were recorded and analyzed. The results of the listening comprehension posttest were compared to that of the pretest using a 2-tailed t-test (p < .05). A one-way ANOVA on the mean strategy use was applied (p < .05).The results of the qualitative data analysis were in line with and confirmed that of quantitative. Analysis of the interviews and the questionnaires revealed that the use of authentic materials in the EFL classroom helped increase students’ comfort level and their self-confidence to listen to the foreign language. Results showed a statistically significant improvement in listening ability, as well as the positive effect on EFL students’ motivation to learn the language. Recommendations were offered to ease students’ frustration that resulted from the speed of authentic speech. Pedagogical implications of the results were discussed along with the impact on EFL students’ listening comprehension development.
List of Tables
 
Table 1: Source of Data 48
 
Table 2: Demographic data of Strategy 51
 
Table 3: Analysis of Data 62
 
Table 4: Interview Results 68
 
Table 5: Results from Class Observation 70
 
Table 6: Students’ Responses on Self-Evaluation Questionnaire 71
 
Table 7: Interviews with Students on Learning Strategy Use 74
 
Table 18: Class Observation on Learning Strategy Use 75
 
Table 9: Responses to Questionnaire on Learning Strategy Use 78
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